2. Types and Classifications of Korean Traditional Instruments
There are a total of sixty surviving musical instruments in Korea, including a kayagum, komun'go, haegum, p'iri, and so on. The majority of these instruments are still used in Korean traditional music. These instruments have their own unique origins and roots as well as their own histories in their different uses at a different performance settings. The individual instruments have their own unique role and function in both vocal music and instrumental pieces of music in Koran traditional musical performance. They have gradually changed over the course of their long histories. They have enormously contributed to the development of Korean music, in particular enriching the greater degree of art and originality in relation to a variety of instrumental pieces of music.
Some instruments such as a p'yonjong, p'yon'gyong, kum, sul, konghu family, yang'hum, and so on, originated from the neighbouring countries such as China and introduced into Korea at various times in history. Many were introduced in the Koryo period (918-1392) and the time of King Sejong the Great who reinged during 1418 to 1450 in the Choson dynasty (1392-1910). These are now well adapted to the Korean culture and environment, and expressed Korean characteristics and temperament. Most instruments were made in the local environment to use in Korean music and grew to develop their own expressions and technique in both time and space. The understanding of the history of Korean musical instruments, therefore, will help to understand Korean traditional music itself as they are in the same process their own techniques, ranges, as well as the improvements will continually develop aspects in order to meet the need for the extended repertories and the contemporary audience.
2.1 Types of musical instruments
Korean traditional musical instruments, which are employed in musical performance, can be classified in two ways: one type is the indigenous Korean instruments originating from Samguk-sidae [literally the Period of Three Kingdoms-Shilla (B.C. 57-A.D. 935), Paekje (B.C. 182-A.D. 660) and Kojuryo (B. C. 37-A.D. 668)]. The other type is adapted from foreign countries imported from China and
other countries in Central Asia. There are some written sources describing how Korean indigenous instruments had been used in the past. These historical manuscripts are as follows: (i) Samgjksagi-akji [literally a manuscript concerning music about the Three Kingdoms] introduced part of the names of the instruments used in Shilla,Paekje and Kuguryo; (ii) Koryosa-akji [literally a manuscript of music about the Koryo dynasty] mentioned about thirty instruments ;(iii) Sejongshillok-oryeyui [The Sejing Annals concerning the Five 'Rites of Passage'] referred to about fifty instruments; (iv) akhak-gwebom [literally the principles for the study of musical sound published in 1493 by Sung Hyun, the well known scholar]; (v) Chungbo-munhon-bigo [literally the Revised and Enlarged Encyclopedia, published in 1908 and the first version in 1770]. These sources, however, provide only the list of the names of these instruments, but they do not describe any techniques, use, function, and so forth,, of the individual instrument.
The total numbers of the instruments which are mentioned in these manuscripts are more than sixty instruments: a few of them are regarded as antique objects and a few of them became obsolete. Some instruments also are not possible to play, with other instruments in certain pieces of music such as in Munmyo-cheyeak [Confucian Shrine Music], although they are included in the instrumentation of the music. Thus, excepting these instruments twenty or so dysfunctional instruments, approximately forty instruments are employed nowadays in musical performance, and thirty-seven to forty-four instruments are in use, according to Hangukyesulch'ongram-charyop'yon [General References to Bibligraphy in Korean Arts], the instrument, edited by Sung Kyung-lin, compiled the total 37 instruments and Kugak-kaeron [A General Survey of Korean Traditional Music], co-edited by Chang Sa-hun and Hahn Man-young, mentioned the total 44 instruments. The names of instruments in each manuscript are listed as follows:
In Akhad-gwebom, the total 66 instruments are divided into three different types of music:
(i)a -akgi[instruments for a (means"court")-ak("music")]: the total 46 instruments -t'ukjong, t'ukgyong, p'yonjong, p'y n'gyong, kon'go, sakgo,ung'go, noego, yong'go, nogo, noedo, yongdo,nodo, to, cholgo, chin'go, ch'uk,o , kwan, yak, wha, saeng, wu, so, chok (notched bamboo vertical flute), pu, hun, chi, kum, sul, tuk, chong, hwi (flag painted in a dragon), choch'ok, sun, t'ak (鐸), yo, t'ak,ung,ah, sang, tok, yak, chok, kan, ch'ok;
(ii) tang-akgi [instruments for the Tang court music]: the total 13 instruments - panghyng, pak, kyobang'go, wolgum, chang'gu, tang-bip'a, haegum, ajaeng, taejaeng, tang-jok, tang-p'ri, t'aep'yongso;
(iii) hyang-akgi [instruments for korean native music]: the total 7 instruments - komun'go, hyang-bip'a, kayagum, taegum, sokwanja, ch'ojok, hyang-p'iri.
In Chungbo-munhon-bigo, the total 61 instruments are classified by the type of materials used. The grouping is as follow:
(i) k m-bu (Metal):9 instruments -p'yonjong, t'ukgyong, yo, sun, t'ak (鐸), t'ak,
pangyong, hyang-bal and tong-bal;
(ii) s k-bu (stone):1 instrument -kyong(p'yon'gyong);
(iii) sa-bu(silk):11 instruments -kum, sul, hyonkum(komun'go), kayagum, wolgum,
haegum, tang-bip'a, hyang-bip'a, taejaeng, ajaeng
(iv) chuk-bu (bamboo):12 instruments -so, yak, kwan, chok, chi, tang-jok,taegum
chung'gum, sogum, t'ungso, tang-p'iri and
(v) p'o-bu (gourd):3 instruments -saeng, wu and wha;
(vi) t'o bu (clay):4 instruments -hun, sang, pu and t'ogo;
(vii) hy k-bu (leather): 15 instruments -chin'go, noego, yong'go, nogo, yongdo, nodo, kon'go, sakgo, ung'go, cholgo, taego, sogo, kyobang'go and chang'gu;
(viii) mok-bu (wood):6 instruments -pu, ch'uk, o, ung, a and tok.
2.2 Methods of classification
There are four methods of classifying Korean traditional instruments in terms of:
(i) materials used in producing a particular instrument;
(ii) a genre of Korean music;
(iii) technique employed in the musical performance;
(iv) the principle of vibrating the instrument.
of these, (i) and (ii) are taken from the Korean system of division, and (iii) and (iv) are applied by the method of European art music and the Sachs- Hornbostel
Classification used in the study of Ethnomusicology respectively.
2.2.1 Classification by materials used
This method was mentioned in the manuscript - chungbo-munhun-bigo- whose criteria of classification of individual instruments depended on the materials contained or the physical matter. Its production consists of eight types of materials as described above: kum, sok, sa, chuk, p'o, t'o, hyok and mok. These eight materials are also called as 'p'al-um'[literally eight materials] which are said to be derived from th emperor of Sun in ancient China. The p'al-um is interpreted by the association of the eight materials that are related to umyang- ohaengsol [see page 15 in this text] as well as p'algwae such as k n, kon, yi, kam, etc. which are derived from I Ching [Book of Changes]. The p'al-um is also subdivided into two categories: a-bu and sok-bu. The former refers to the instruments for the classical art music such as g m, s l employed in cherye- umak (ritual music). The latter denotes the instruments for hyang-ak (Korean native music) and tang-ak (music of Tang style of China) which are related to court music, particularly referring to hyang-ak, such as a komun'go, kayagum. A great deal of the Korean instruments belong to sa-bu, chuk-bu and hyok-bu in p'al-um.
2.2.2 Classification by genre of music
The method was derived from the manuscript - Akhak-gwebom - which was complied and published in 1493 during King Sungjong in the Choson dynasty, and it was divided into the three sections: a-bu, tang-bu and hyang-bu according to the origin and family of the instrument. Instruments belong to a-bu refers to those originating in ancient China and they were introduced to Korea in King Yejong (1106-1122) in the Koryo dynasty by the import of Taesong-aak, which indicates the Chinese ritual music, in which these instruments were employed. For instance, these instruments comprise a p'yon'gyong, p'yongjong, and so forth. Instruments such as a chang'gu and haegum for tang-bu are designated by its origin derived from not only the Tang dynasty but also folk instruments of the Chinese era which might have originated in Central Asia. Instruments such as a kayagum and komun'go for hyang-bu refers to all the indigenous or native instruments of the Korean origin.
2.2.3 Technique of the instruments
Like in the classification of European art music, Korean instruments are generally applied to this western method which is made in terms of the elements of musical genres: instruments for melody, harmony and accompaniment as well as the purposes of acoustics or performance, such as instruments for a brass, string and percussion. For instance, such instruments a taegum and p'iri belong to the woodwind instrument; a haegum and kayagum the stringed instrument; a chang'gu and p'yon'gyong are classified as the percussion instrument.
2.2.4 Methods by the principles of the way of vibrating a material
This classification Is established by the German musicologists and physicians
Curt Sachs and Erich Von Hornbostel in 1914. Afterward this system is adopted
worldwidely, in particular in the field of Ethnomusicology. They divided all the extant instruments throughout the world into four systems according to the way of vibration of a material used in an instrument:
(i) Membranophones: this term is derived from the Latin word "membranum" which means leather. This causes characteristic vibration of stretched skin or other membrane.
(ii) Idiophones: this belongs to the majority of the percussion instrument depending on characteristic vibration determined by the nature of the material, free from any kind of applied tension, such as brass, stone, wood, clay, and so on.
(iii) Chordophones: various stringed instruments played by bowing, plucking and stromping belong to this category. The way of producing a sound is characteristic
vibration of stretched strings.
(iv) Aerophones: most woodwind or brass instruments depending on characteristic
vibration of an air colum can be applied to this category.
(v) Electrophones which are the group of electronic instruments are added to this system recently,
There are some additional classifications In Korea as follows:
(i) in terms of a different pitch of the fundamental tone in a particular instrument, for instance, there are two different pitches in the fundamental note - C (e.g. p'yonjong, p'yon'gyong, tang-p'iri, etc.) or E flat (e.g. taegum, hyang-p'iri, tanso, etc.) which both notes are equivalent to the pitches on the piano;
(ii) the manner of holding the woodwind instrument such as notched bamboo vertical flutes (e.g. tanso, t'ungso, saenap/t'aep'yongso, etc.) or transverse bamboo flutes (e,g. taegum, sogum, chi, etc.);
(iii) In the case of the woodwind instrument, it can also be divided into two ways of whether they have a single reed (e.g. saengwhang, etc.) or double reeds (e.g. p'iri, saenap/t'aep'yongso);
(iv) in the case of the percussion instrument, whether they have a fixed pitch (e.g. p'yonjong, p'yon'gyong, ulla, etc.) or not (e.g. para/chabara, ching, chang'gu, etc.);
(v) the way of producing a sound in the stringed instrument whether drawing strings with a bow (e.g. ajaeng, haegum, etc.) or plucking them with fingers or a stick (e.g. komun'go, kayagum, etc.) or striking them with a stick (e.g. yang'gum, etc.);
(vi) in terms of ranges of pitches whether a high register (e.g. sogum, tanso, etc.) or a middle register (e.g, taegum, etc.) or a low register (e.g. ajaeng, komun'go, etc.) they possess;
(vii) the way of used materials such as wood and brass (e.g. saenap/ t'aep'yongso, etc.) or brass (e.g. nabal, etc.) or bamboo (e.g. taegum, sogum, etc.).